Radio communication protocols Wi-fi, Bluetooth, Zwave, Zigbee?
When it comes to home automation or
remote digital control , or local by voice to interact with modern technologies, including the IoT, 4 radio communication protocols become major: Wi-fi, Bluetooth, Zwave, Zigbee. Today, the first 2 are the object of this attention. A future article will deal with the last 2 of the list. The Bluetooth radio communication protocol
You can call Bluetooth a protocol or a technology: both make it important for short-range IoT communications. He became a cardinal in IT and in the
Smart Home . The more the Internet of Things develops, the more this radio communication protocol becomes essential for portable products, in particular because of local control which is increasingly carried out from a Smartphone. With or without the action of its user! The new Bluetooth 5 protocol
The new Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) technology, or Bluetooth Smart, is the sweet code name under which you regularly discover
Bluetooth 5 . This protocol is important for IoT applications, not only because it offers possibilities similar to traditional Bluetooth, but above all because the energy consumption is considerably reduced.
Protocol 5 has the most speed and range, and BLE is a variation of it.
Highly Competitive Capabilities
Bluetooth 5 has the following main characteristics:
2x faster (than previous version)
Bluetooth 4 = 50 m outdoors versus 200 m for the 5
10 m for the 4 versus 40 m indoors for the Bluetooth 5 8x Data
A new breakthrough for an everyday radio communication protocol
The capabilities of this radio communication protocol put it in direct competition with a number of radio systems, including Zigbee and other protocols for meter reading. The release of version 5 (nor is it a 5.0 as advertised in a marketing package…) marked a new stage in the evolution of Bluetooth as a technical and commercial partner tightly coupled to 4GLTE and the WiFi 802.11.
Most of you already use Bluetooth in your daily life: the fitness device that communicates with your Smartphone, with the hands-free function of the car or when listening to Spotify via wireless headphones, etc.
Finally the long range!
Bluetooth 5 is important for several reasons. This is the fourth iteration of
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), but the first time BLE has been paired with a long-range (1,600 meter) Bluetooth PHY and MAC option. This opens up a whole new range of potential applications, including retail beaconing over long distances.
When your vehicle tells you that you are driving too fast, it is also via Bluetooth (which you thought you had never activated).
Version 5 involves some interesting design challenges. The BLE specification is inherently less resistant to interference than classic Bluetooth: the existing seventy-eight X 1 MHz channels in the
20 MHz to 2.4 GHz bandwidth are replaced by thirty-nine two MHz channels with three channels fixed non-jerky in the middle and at the periphery of the passband.
The coexistence of Bluetooth and Wifi has been the subject of extensive research and work for more than 10 years. Which is now handled with surprising efficiency in a Smartphone, thanks to a combination of optimized analog and digital filtering and interference mitigation.
A 5G Bluetooth version
The introduction of high Bluetooth technology makes it necessary to address how 5G Bluetooth technically and commercially associates with 5G, including 5G IOT.
Superficially, one could consider that Bluetooth and all
2.4 GHz ISM -based systems would not need to be considered in the process of defining 5G products and standards. After all, the implementation mainly focuses on the Ka band at 26 GHz or 28 GHz…
The saturation of the 2.4 GHz ISM band is such that it will become increasingly unusable. This is why, pragmatically, 5G will become an integral part of spectrum refarming plans for frequencies below 3GHz.
It is also likely that it will be necessary to provide high-powered 5G user equipment. This is particularly the case for 1 and 3 watt handsets for public protection and BT EE emergency service networks, which have a shorter wavelength spectrum. In other words, the
advanced geolocation (or AML, for Advanced Mobile Location) will allow other interactions without necessary action from the Smartphone user.
But for now, there are still some significant coexistence concerns between 5G communications under 3 GHz systems and ISM 2.4 GHz, including Bluetooth Wi-Fi.
The Wi-Fi radio communication protocol
Wi-fi connectivity is one of the most popular
radio communication protocols. It has become an obvious choice for many developers. The main reason is its availability in the domestic or tertiary environment, within local networks.
There is a large existing infrastructure that offers fast data transfer and the ability to handle large amounts of data. Currently, the most widely used Wi-Fi standard in homes and in many businesses is 802.11n. However, this protocol is now dual-band AC and recently AD to offer up to 6.75 Gbit/s!
This radio communication protocol is suitable for
file transfers . Moreover, it works perfectly well in applications for the Internet of Things, especially with voice commands . Although it is sometimes too energy intensive for these applications. Soon an interaction of mobile and Wifi networks supported by the nomadic system
It was during a Mobile World Congress in Barcelona that a life-size experience was deployed. This experiment was intended to show the potential with a better bridge between mobile and Wi-fi networks. Anyone using a Samsung Galaxy S9 device (at a minimum) on the local wireless network, could connect seamlessly and securely without manual authentication. No portal, no entering passwords, no choosing SSIDs, no credit cards.
To do this, the radio communication protocol used the credentials already present on the Smartphones. For example, the SIM card. And even if the operator did not support
Wifi Passpoint , the mobile did! Other credentials can also be used for a secure onboarding experience. They support connectivity to corporate and public or even private access networks. From there, imagine the potential in terms of home automation and smart homes… Can’t wait for 6 GHz wifi?
6 GHz Wi-Fi is probably the biggest opportunity for this radio communication protocol in a generation. When this enhancement is fully rolled out, it could potentially more than double WiFi spectrum. Indeed, it will be able to achieve up to 4 times more
channel deployment options at 160 MHz . Be aware that a large number of current PCs already support 160 MHz channels… This means an exponential gain in speed, provided you have subscribed to an adequate domestic or tertiary service.
Theoretical speeds of 4.8 Gbit/s that all manufacturers of electronic devices and digital applications want to obtain. By using the 6 GHz band, Wi-Fi will become very consuming, hence its name
Very Low Power (VLP).
It will also be very efficient: the prospects are 2 Gbit/s at three meters. What to enjoy a 5G connection in the best conditions. This is valid for domestic, tertiary and Iot use including the whole.
Like many technologies, the USA should be the first to benefit from it, Europe will follow in a similar way. Huawei has completed the global rollout of its enterprise Wi-Fi 6 (or 5G network) products.
Zigbee and Z-WAWE radio communication protocols
With the appearance of the concept of the smart home, you quickly come across radio communication protocols such as
ZigBee , Z-Wav e, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Everyone knows these last 2, but what about the first? The Zigbee communication protocol
You find Zigbee from many manufacturers, including:
An Open Web gateway
A flood detector
Its smart lamps and overall lighting system
Solutions for devices that are often on continuously
Some OSRAM bulbs
Dont des spots
Proximity with Bluetooth
This radio communication protocol is similar to Bluetooth: it is mainly used in industrial environments, but you find it in domestic and tertiary buildings. It has significant advantages in complex systems, offering
low power operation , high security, robustness and high performance. It works with wireless sensor and control networks in IoT applications.
The latest version of
ZigBee unifies the different wireless standards in a single solution. This radio communication protocol ensures that your home automation devices are in contact with each other. It is known as a mesh network, i.e. each device is connected to at least 2 other sensors. This is a big advantage compared to other more familiar protocols, including Bluetooth, or even Wi-Fi. The advantages of Zigbee
ZigBee devices consume very little power, and their respective batteries last a very long time. Some sensors even work for years without ever having to change it.
Another advantage is the transmission of a wireless signal: ZigBee devices are not only in contact with a central point, such as your router, but also with each other. The sensors transmit signals to each other, which extends the range. This allows devices to take over the functions of others. If a device fails, the system will still be able to communicate, and the user will use its functions.
Lack of a traditional Wi-Fi range
Traditional Wi-Fi networks provide internet access to
all your IoT devices , and the distance between the router and the device determines the strength of the signal used to operate the devices. The average range of the Wi-Fi signal is between 30 and 100 meters. With thick walls, even 5 meters can be difficult to achieve, and reinforced concrete is often a challenge.
It is then that the advantage of radio communication by mesh appears. Every product that works with ZigBee uses some power – such as a light or motion sensor – to repeat signals from other devices on the network. If you have multiple ZigBee products in the house, you will improve the effective signal range. This means you can now reach devices that are out of range of your old signal.
ZigBee 3.0 defines the broadest range of compatible device types, including home automation, lighting, energy management, smart devices, security, sensors, and monitoring products.
Based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard , operating at 2.4 GHz – a frequency available worldwide – this latest version of the radio communication protocol uses the ZigBee PRO network to enable reliable transmission in the smallest devices and less energy intensive.
ZigBee certified products, ZigBee Home Automation and ZigBee Light Link, are
interoperable with ZigBee 3.0 .
What can you do with ZigBee? Easy dimming and switching
The user dims or turns on their lights with their smartphone or tablet, depending on whether they are at home or on the go.
He can set a schedule that dims his lights before he goes to bed.
In addition, it is possible to color an interior with atmospheres. The user can choose from 16.8 million colors!
Protect a home
With ZigBee sensors, you can monitor your home remotely. The user receives push notifications on his Smartphone in case of emergency. If the device is associated with an IP camera, the data is stored locally on an SD medium, allowing the person concerned to control the images themselves. It goes without saying that this is done without a subscription.
The user can connect his lamps , see if the lights are on or off, wherever he is. The possibilities are limitless.
Make different devices compatible
Devices working with the same radio communication protocol become compatible with each other, regardless of the brand of products.
The Z-Wave radio communication protocol
Also written Zwave sometimes, this radio communication protocol is used by various brands, including:
USB keys, remote control sockets, micro lighting receivers, etc.
Like sensor- switched outdoor lights.
Z-Wave is a low-power RF communications
IoT technology designed primarily for home automation, including lamp controllers and sensors. It is simpler than some others. What is Z-Wave and what are its benefits?
Unknowingly, you might come across Z-Wave when looking for Smart Home products. It can be compared to Wi-Fi: it allows devices to communicate effectively with each other.
Z-Wave VS Wi-fi
Z-Wave is a mesh network, just like Zigbee. Unlike Wi-Fi, this radio communication protocol is designed so that a device receives the signal from the transmitter, even if this device is not directly connected to the transmitter. The Wi-Fi network, on the other hand, requires that there is a connection between the sender and the recipient. As such, a series of luminaires connected to a Smartphone or a tablet via Wi-f, communicates with the hub, which tells the lamps what to do. While using the Z-Wave network, the luminaires themselves can send the same signal to each other (Zigbee works this way too). The lighting control still works.
One of the advantages is also that lighting out of range of a hub can still receive the signal. Imagine, you have a lamp on the ground floor, on the first floor and at a great distance like the garage. The garage light cannot directly receive the signal from the hub, but can receive it from a closer device, which in turn will have received it from the hub or another light fixture, heating thermostat, roller shutters or a connected lock.
In terms of energy use, it is also advantageous to use a mesh network: the devices will run for years on battery power without having to be connected to the mains. For comparison, devices that work with Wi-Fi must always be connected to the mains. They therefore consume more energy.
Also find best communication radios at
The strength of the Z-Wave radio communication protocol
With a Z-Wave network, you can add any device, such as a video surveillance camera: it will work effortlessly within the existing network.
Each time you install a new Z-Wave compatible product, you add an additional mesh to the Smart Home network in question. That of the building becomes more powerful. If one of the devices failed, the network would find a new route through other devices to transmit the signal.
Comparison Z-Wave and ZigBee
One of the most important factors in setting up or expanding a network of smart home products is compatibility. To illustrate, you buy a motion detector, you must be able to connect it to your existing alarm system and activate it.
ZigBee is an open source network, so manufacturers can make adjustments in the software themselves to suit the product. As a result, not all Zigbee devices can communicate with each other after installing them. If you want to
extend your Zigbee network with a different brand, always check if the hardware can cooperate with your current devices. Major brands that use Zigbee include Philips and Samsung for example.
Z-wave is developed by one company, and all products contain the same chipset. For this reason, almost all products supporting this radio communication protocol can work together. And you can effortlessly expand a network with products from different manufacturers. In theory, you can link all brands of
SMART security cameras to your lighting or sound system, as long as they communicate via Z-wave.
In practice, however, these features must also be implemented in the manufacturer’s app, which is not always the case. So also check that the Z-wave devices meet your needs and are compatible with your current Smart Home products before buying them.
Range and stability
ZigBee and Z-Wave devices use signals at a certain wavelength to communicate with each other. How far do these signals go? It depends entirely on the noise level in the environment and varies from a few meters to several tens of meters. In question, the electromagnetic noise of all devices that transmit signals. The more devices a building hosts, the more signals there are. Walls, ceilings and other objects between transmitter and receiver also affect range and stability.
Professionals generally agree that Z-Wave generates less noise and is more stable because it uses
the 868 MHz frequency . This frequency is more difficult to disturb by household appliances. Zigbee uses the 2.4 GHz frequency, which includes WiFi, Bluetooth, microwave ovens, and many other devices. Energy consumption
ZigBee and Z-Wave devices only need to send and receive a very limited amount of data. If a device is configured as a receiver because the next product is out of range of the main transmitter, technically you have to receive the signal, amplify it and transmit it to the next device. This consumes a bit more power and therefore the receivers usually have to be connected to the mains.
Which is better: Z-Wave or ZigBee?
In conclusion, one can logically ask the question: what is the
best radio communication protocol ? private use
For private use, the answer to the question is neither.
To automate a home, the 2 have
sufficient autonomy , consume little energy, are well secured and have many products compatible with the protocol considered, or even compatible with both.
You can also connect enough devices in both cases to make a completely smart home. With Z-Wave, the maximum is 232, while Zigbee can hold up to 65,000 devices on a network.
For business use, all 232 devices can quickly be reached. Zigbee allows you to set up a larger network.
If a consumer is loyal to a brand, this choice must be taken into account. For example, if you have already set up a wide area network through Philips Hue , you should consider purchasing ZigBee products.
Other radio communication protocols
There is an almost bewildering array of connectivity options for electronics engineers and application developers working on products and systems for the Internet of Things (IoT). For installers of home automation solutions, this translates into having to choose the
radio communication protocol best suited to the site in question.
Previously, the advantages of
Zigbee and Z-WAWE were discussed, as well as the benefits of Bluetooth and Wi-Fi in this configuration of automation or piloting other than manual. But there are several new, well-established options such as RFID , or emerging ones such as Thread which appears as an alternative to smart home related applications for wider uses and in the management of urban perimeters. The 6LoWPAN communication protocol
6LoWPAN deserves special attention for all things wireless home networking, as well as Ipv6. The latter is also very interesting for an industrial network, in addition to the residential one. This latest protocol is undoubtedly the future of the connected home. Finally, when it comes to Smartphone to control a system, NFC is worthy of interest, especially if it comes to security.
Depending on the application, factors such as range, data requirements, security, power requirements, and battery life will dictate the choice of a technology or device. combination of technologies.
An interesting protocol for home use
As Wikipedia states, 6LoWPAN stands for IPv6
Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks or IPv6 LoW Power wireless Area Networks. While many communication technologies are well known, such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, ZigBee or Zwawe, this technology is based on IP (Internet Protocol) for any low-power wireless home network. Ethernet and WiFi compatibility
Rather than being 100% a radio protocol technology for IoT applications, 6LowPAN also allows definition of
header encapsulation and compression mechanisms. The standard offers freedom of frequency band and layer, and can also be used on several radio communication platforms, including Ethernet and Wi-Fi.
The advantages of 6LowPAN
6LowPAN is a robust, scalable, and self-healing mesh network. Its advantage is that mesh devices can route data intended for other devices, while hosts can sleep for long periods of time.
X-ray of this radio communication protocol
Its frequency adapts and is used on various other network carriers, including
Bluetooth Smart (2.4 GHz), ZigBee or low power RF (below 1 GHz).
The 6LowPAN radio communication protocol is indicated in applications where factors such as:
The range and time elapsed between sending and receiving
Data requirements despite speed
Safety and the route taken
To illustrate the power of 6LoWPAN and better understand the points listed just above, imagine a residential building such as an apartment building: with an antenna on the second floor and a receiver 1 meter above the ground, in the parking lot, and despite masonry walls of 20 cm, the expected range of 6LoWPAN is 116 meters.
Of course, this is not enough to cover all the obstacle courses existing in this car park (if that is necessary), but a bouquet of technologies can be envisaged, in particular with:
La technologie BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy)
An excellent complement to Wi-Fi: Thread
Thread is a completely new IP-based
IPv6 network protocol , 100% aimed at the home automation environment. Based more particularly on 6LowPAN, it is not strictly speaking an application protocol such as Bluetooth or ZWawe. However, from an application point of view, it appears to be an excellent complement to Wi-Fi, which quickly becomes limited in an advanced home automation configuration. Also, to simplify without going into too technical details, we will consider it as a protocol in its own right. Thread compatibility
Thread appeared in 2004: it is a royalty-free radio protocol based on various standards, including
IEEE802.15.4 . As a reminder, IEEE802.15.4 is a wireless radio interface protocol. It is also compatible with IPv6 and 6LoWPAN. This protocol works very well in a mesh network using IEEE802.15.4 radio transceivers. It is capable of managing up to 250 nodes with high levels of authentication and encryption. Google’s version of ZigBee?
Its frequency is 2.4 GHz. To take a big shortcut, you could think of it as Google’s version of ZigBee. Although this proximity is absolutely true, since the same chips for Thread and ZigBee can be used. They are both based on 802.15.4.
The future of connected technologies: IPv6 What is IPv6?
IPv6 was discussed with the presentation of the 6LowPAN protocol. However, significant differences exist between the 2. To put it simply, let’s say that IPv6 authorizes
128-bit IP address fields in a particular form. 6LowPAN instead uses an adaptation layer between the network and the data transfer layer.
Similarly, IPv6 does not provide routing, just a mesh (which is notably supported by 6LowPAN). IPv6 needs a link speed of 1280 bytes, while 6LowPAN supports 127 bytes.
IPv6 (for Internet Protocol version 6) is a key element in the development of the Internet of Things. Posing as a successor to IPv4, this protocol makes it possible to confer 5 x 1028 addresses for each user in the world, allowing any object or home automation device integrated in the world to have its own IP address and to connect to the Internet. Specifically, IPv6 is totally suitable for residential and industrial automation applications. It is a transport mechanism for creating complex control systems. It also makes it possible to communicate with peripherals in a cost-effective way, via a low-power wireless network.
This radio communication protocol is designed for:
Send IPv6 packets over IEEE802.15.4 networks
Implement open IP standards (including http that everyone knows)
It allows for example a router to connect the network to an IP.
IPv6 History Summary
About 20 years ago, the
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), which is a non-profit organization responsible for creating new connected technologies, proposed a better solution to the problem represented by the Internet. It is therefore established that IPv6 is not a completely new concept, Even represents (the most skeptical will certainly be content to read instead!) the future of IP-based protocols. It will still take a little time for that, but it will take over one day or another.
NFC for simple and secure interaction linked to Smartphones
A protocol of choice for contactless applications
NFC is the acronym for
Near Field Communication . It is above all a technology allowing simple and secure interactions between home automation devices, particularly applicable to Smartphones. Perhaps you already use it without knowing it on a daily basis: this protocol allows consumers to make contactless payment transactions, access digital content and connect electronic devices with each other.
Home automation and the near field concept
This radio communication protocol essentially extends the capabilities of its technology to share information at a distance between 4 cm and sometimes 10 cm, depending on the application. Its frequency is 13.56 MHz. The data rate is 100–420kbps. Even home automation uses this near-field communication: when you pass your Smartphone in front of a card reader to pay for your purchases, you are probably using the NFC protocol. This is reminiscent of RFID, whose name is more popular. Yet NFC is very popular in the Internet of Things.
RFID for systems without power supply
There are 2 types of radio frequency identification: active and passive. This
RFID protocol was specially designed so that devices without power can send a signal. In most systems, one part of an RFID system is powered, which creates a magnetic field, which induces an electric current in the chip. This power supply is sufficient for the system to send wireless data with the correct power. It is for this purpose that RFID tags are used for shipping and tracking purposes.
Communication protocols and IoT applications
The first 3 parts of the communication protocols covered an overview of various radio possibilities involved in
connected devices and home automation applications . In this last part, are mainly treated IoT applications requiring operations over long distances. The best solutions communicate on the benefit of being able to control the functions from a Smartphone, wherever the user is; it is therefore advisable to bring this x-ray. Similarly, long distance can refer to applications in cities, where data transfer needs to cover a wide area.
Especially since nowadays the Internet of Things covers a wide range of sectors and scenarios of uses, ranging from a constrained single device to massive multi-platform or multi-brand deployments, and Cloud systems connecting in real time. to the building system under consideration.
This all ties into many legacy and emerging communication protocols that allow devices and servers to communicate with each other in new and more interconnected ways. At the same time, dozens of alliances and coalitions are forming in hopes of unifying the fragmented and organic IoT landscape.
With 5G, LTE-M and Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), you have to reckon with
Sigfox . This new technology optimizes energy consumption and recovers ambient energy. To illustrate, NB-IoT allows home automation equipment to have 10 years of autonomy, with a 5 Wh battery. What the cell phone cannot provide, far from it.
Securing Office 365 Cellular communication protocols?
Any IoT application requiring long distance operations can take advantage of GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G), LTE-M (5G) cellular communication capabilities. While these protocols are clearly capable of sending large amounts of data, especially for 5G, the cost as well as power consumption will be too high for many applications.
As an indication, up to 4G, the frequencies are 900, 1800, 1900 and 2100MHz, with a maximum range of 35 km for GSM and 200 km for HSPA. Data rates are 35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS), 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE). The difference between 4G and 5G: 10 times faster.
If a home automation solution uses 2G to 5G to remotely control IoT devices, you should know that the application requires a constant power source, or must be able to be recharged regularly.
LTE, categories 0, 1, and 3
With LTE classes, the lower the speed, the lower the power used. LTE Cat 1 and 0 are generally best suited for IoT devices.
It is the first cellular wireless protocol designed from the ground up for IoT devices.
LTE-M is the choice of several major operators, including Orange. This protocol is compatible with existing mobile phone networks. You find it in solutions that need to transport video, including video surveillance.
And unlike the following protocol (NB-IoT), voice exchanges are possible on the network. Likewise, it makes it possible to control the mobility of objects, which is important in the IoT, even if we move away a little from the connected home for traditional use. You will hear a lot about it with autonomous vehicles (which are still moving connected objects…).
NB-IoT, or Narrowband IoT, is another way to communicate with low-power devices.
Huawei and Ericsson , for example, are active proponents of this protocol. They are also involved in its implementation.
NB-IoT uses the 200 KhZ frequency, which was that of the GSM network. This protocol is suitable for large fleets equipped with fixed sensors, while only using a small volume of data. You find it in telemetry applications for water or electricity meters when they are connected. Vodafone has also chosen this technology. 5G
The enables new functionalities to be added to the current offer of connected objects. To ensure that these issues succeed and to keep up with the growing evolution of the market, networks are moving towards more virtualization.
5G introduces new architectures, new functionalities at all levels. This goes from the object itself to the applications hosted in the Cloud, through the various network layers. The uses made of this technology are diverse and varied, including by way of illustration:
The connected home
Sigfox, the protocol between Wi-fi and cellular
Sigfox is a wide-range alternative technology that, in terms of range, falls
between Wi-fi and cellular . It uses the ISM bands, which are free to use without the need to acquire licenses to transmit data over a very narrow spectrum to and from connected objects. About Sigfox
For many applications running on a small battery and requiring only low levels of data transfer, the range of Wi-Fi is often too short, while mobile telephony consumes too much energy. Sigfox then becomes very interesting: the communication protocol uses a technology called
Ultra Narrow Band (UNB). It only handles low data transfer speeds, ranging from 10 to 1000 bits per second. It consumes only 50 microwatts, compared to 5,000 microwatts for cellular communication. Devices using Sigfox can enjoy a standby time of 20 years with a 2.5 Ah battery, while it is less than 3 months with a cellular protocol. The advantages of Sigfox
Already deployed on tens of thousands of connected objects, Sigfox is being deployed in major European cities, particularly in the United Kingdom, which has a dozen. He offers :
Possibilities of evolution
The ability to communicate with millions of battery-operated devices over several square miles
So it is suitable for various applications like smart meters, street lighting and environmental sensors etc. The system uses silicon, which provides amazing wireless performance, such as extended range and extremely low power consumption. This is for wireless network applications operating in the band below 1 GHz (its frequency is 900 MHz). Its range in a rural biotope is about 30-50 km, compared to 3-10 km in an urban environment.
Slowly but understandably
SigFox wireless systems send very small amounts of data (12 bytes) very slowly (300 baud) using standard radio transmission methods. Long range is accomplished as a result of very long and very slow transmissions. You find it integrated in many devices such as parking sensors or water meters. This slowness is what partly explains why this technology is struggling to establish itself in the USA for example, their legislation imposing a maximum transmission time of a transmission at 0.4 seconds. While it is 3 seconds.
In fact, this communication protocol is ideal for any application that needs to send small, infrequent bursts of data. Things like basic alarm systems, location monitoring, and simple metering are examples of one-way systems
that can use it. Single, for long area communication coverage
Similar to Sigfox’s concept and operating in the
sub-1 GHz band , Neul exploits very small slices of the spectrum to provide high coverage, low power and low cost. The systems are based on the Iceni chip, which communicates on a frequency that varies from country to country.
This wireless communication protocol is a so-called wide area network technology. Designed for the IoT, the solution easily competes with other network systems, including
LTE . Connected devices can consume only 20 to 30 mA with 2xAA batteries! Translate 10 to 15 years into facts. Its range is up to 10 km.
For industrial applications requiring a wide area network (WAN), and for which it is necessary to provide low power, the above communication protocols show their limits. Two-way communication, obviously secure, and at low cost is required in IoT environments.
LoRaWAN seems to be suitable, with a range of 2 to 5 km in an urban environment, and 15 km in a suburban biotope.
On the other hand, for applications including the notion of real time,
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is the adequate communication protocol. It is based on the Internet Protocol (IP).
If the top priority is security, the DTLS protocol ensures the confidentiality of communications expected. It allows applications to communicate in such a way as to prevent any illicit eavesdropping, or falsification of transferred data.